Our group helped formulate and execute NASA’s Cloud, Aerosol and Monsoon Processes Philippines Experiment (CAMP2Ex) – a field campaign that took place in the Philippines from late-August to early October, 2019, where NASA operated the NASA Orion-P3 aircraft and the SPEC Inc. Lear jet 35A.  CAMP2Ex also coordinated with the Manila Observatory and the Research Vessel Sally Ride operated by the Office of Naval Research during operations. The overall scientific goal of CAMP2Ex is to characterize the role of anthropogenic and natural aerosol particles in modulating the frequency and amount of warm and mixed phase precipitation in the vicinity of the Philippines during the Southwest Monsoon. To reach this goal CAMP2Ex provided a comprehensive 4-D observational view of the environment of the Philippines and its neighboring waters in terms of microphysical, hydrological, dynamical, thermodynamical, and radiative properties, targeting the environment of shallow cumulus and cumulus congestus clouds. Many of the in situ datasets collected also provide key calibration and validation data for satellite observations for the region.

You can learn more about CAMP2Ex at the CAMP2Ex website:

The CAMP2Ex White Paper that defines the experiment can be dowloaded here:

CAMP2Ex White Paper

Our group also developed and continue to maintain the Illinois CAMP2Ex website to help in providing realtime forecasting and decision making while we were in the field, as well as post flight analysis

The data is hosted at the NASA LaRC Airborne Science Data for Atmospheric Composition and accessible through this link:

We recently explored ways to visualize data collected during CAMP2Ex ( The first is a Data Fusion Dashboard that fuses data in space and time across a host of aircraft and satellite measurements. This is a powerful way to visually summarize an entire Research Flight that allows scientists an easy way to explore the data. An example for Research Flight 09 can be viewed here:

We also created a 3-minute 3D exposition, created in such a way as to help explain CAMP2Ex to a broader audience. This 3D exposition can be viewed here:

We also participate in numerous outreach activities in the Philippines, an example of which is shown in the video below.

Rose Miller was also interviewed as part of the extensive outreach video below.

A cool video from Research Flight #9 posted by Prof. Steve Nesbitt is shown below.

A photo of the CAMP2Ex group is shown below. Present form our group are Prof. Larry Di Girolamo and Rose Miller.

Here’s a couple of movies we developed from the Advanced Himawari Imager for September 15 and 21, 2019, showing smoke from Indonesia.


This project is supported by NASA. The publications below also include support under separate grants and contracts with NASA or NSF and are listed in the acknowledgment section of the publications.

Peer-reviewed publications related to CAMP2Ex objectives

De Vera, M.V., L. Di Girolamo, G. Zhao, R.M. Rauber, S.W. Nesbitt, and G.M. McFarquhar, 2024: Observations of the macrophysical properties of cumulus cloud fields over the tropical western Pacific and their connection to meteorological variables. Atmos. Chem. Physical., 24, 5603-5623, 

Roy, P., R.M. Rauber, and L. Di Girolamo, 2023: A closer look at the evolution of supercooled cloud droplet temperature and lifetime in different environmental conditions with implication for ice nucleation in the evaporating regions of cloud. J. Atmos. Sci., 80(10), 2481-2501,

Lorenzo, G.R., et al., 2023: An emerging aerosol climatology via remote sensing over metro Manila, the Philippines. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10579-10608, 2023,

Loveridge, J., A. Levis, L. Di Girolamo, V. Holodovsky, L. Forster, A.B. Davis, and Y.Y. Schechner, 2023: Retrieving 3D distributions of atmospheric particles using Atmospheric Tomography with 3D Radiative Transfer – Part 2: local optimization, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3931-3957,

Miller, R.M., R.R. Rauber, L. Di Girolamo, M. Rilloraza, D. Fu, G.M. McFarquar, S. Nesbitt, L.D. Ziemba, S. Woods, and K.L. Thornhill, 2023: The influence of natural and anthropogenic aerosol on cloud base droplet size distributions in clouds over the South China Sea and Western Pacific. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8959-8977,

Reid, J., et al., 2023: The coupling between tropical meteorology, aerosol lifecycle, convection, and radiation, during the Clouds, Aerosol Monsoon Processes Philippines Experiment (CAMP2Ex). Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.,

Mitra, A., L. Loveridge, and L. Di Girolamo, 2023: Fusion of MISR stereo cloud heights and Terra-MODIS thermal infrared radiances to estimate two-layered cloud properties. J. Geophys. Res. – Atmos., 128,  e2022JD038135,

Loveridge, J., A. Levis, L. Di Girolamo, V. Holodovsky, L. Forster, A.B. Davis, and Y.Y. Schechner, 2023: Retrieving 3D distributions of atmospheric particles using Atmospheric Tomography with 3D Radiative Transfer – Part 1: Model description and Jacobian calculation, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1803-1847,

Fu, D., L. Di Girolamo, R.M. Rauber, G.M. McFarquhar, S.N. Nesbitt, J. Loveridge, Y. Hong, B. van Diedenhoven, B. Cairns, M.D. Alexandrov, P. Lawson, S. Woods, S. Tanelli, O.O. Sy, S. Schmidt, C.A. Hostetler, and A.J. Scarino, 2022: An evaluation of liquid cloud droplet effective radius derived from MODIS, airborne remote sensing and in situ measurements from CAMP2Ex, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8259-8285, 2022;

Hong, Y., and L. Di Girolamo, 2022: An overview of aerosol properties in clear and cloudy sky based on CALIPSO observations. Earth and Space Science9, e2022EA002287. https://doi. org/10.1029/2022EA002287

Mitra, A., L. Di Girolamo, Y. Hong, Y. Zhan, and K.J. Mueller, 2021: Assessment and error analysis of Terra-MODIS and MISR cloud-top heights through comparison with ISS-CATS lidar. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 126, e2020JD034281.

Dutta, S., L. Di Girolamo, S. Dey, Y. Zhan, C.M. Moroney, and G. Zhao, 2020: The reduction in near-global cloud cover after correcting for biases caused by finite resolution measurement. Geophys. Res. Lett, 47, e2020GL090313.

Hong, Y., and L. Di Girolamo, 2020: Cloud phase characteristics over southeast Asia from A-Train satellite observations. Atmos. Phys. Chem., 20, 8267-8291,

Foster, M.J., L. Di Girolamo, R.A. Frey, A.K. Heidinger, S. Sun-Mack, C. Phillips, W.P. Menzel, M. Stengel, and G. Zhao, 2020: State of the Climate in 2019: Cloudiness [in “State of the Climate in 2019”], Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 101 (8), S51-S53,

Fu, D., L. Di Girolamo, L. Liang, and G. Zhao, 2019: Regional Biases in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) marine liquid water cloud drop effective radius deduced through fusion with Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 124,

Wang, Y., P. Yang, S. Hioki, M.D. King, B.A. Baum, L. Di Girolamo, D. Fu, 2019: Ice cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and ice water path inferred from fused MISR and MODIS measurements based on a pixel-level optimal ice particle roughness model. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 124,

Foster, M.J., L. Di Girolamo, R.A. Frey, A.K. Heidinger, S. Sun-Mack, C. Phillips, W.P. Menzel, M. Stengel, and G. Zhao, 2019: State of the Climate in 2018: Cloudiness, Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 100 (9), S34-S35, doi:10.1175/2019BAMSStateoftheClimate.1.

Lee, B., L. Di Girolamo, G. Zhao, and Y. Zhan, 2018:Three-dimensional cloud volume reconstruction from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer. Remote Sens. 10(11), 1858, doi:10.3390/rs10111858.

Werner, F., Z. Zhang, G. Wind, D. Miller, S. Platnick, and L. Di Girolamo, 2018: Improving cloud optical property retrievals for partly cloudy pixels using coincident higher-resolution single band measurements: A feasibility study using ASTER observations. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 123doi:10.1029/2018JD028902. (EOS Dec 5, 2018, Editor’s Highlight)

Werner, F., G. Wind, Z. Zhang, S. Platnick, L. Di Girolamo, G. Zhao, N. Amarasinghe, and K. Meyer, 2016: Marine boundary layer cloud property retrievals from high–resolution ASTER observations: case studies and comparison with Terra MODIS. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5869-5894, 2016; doi:10.5194/amt-9-5869-2016.

Zhang, Z., F. Werner, H.-M. Cho, G. Wind, S. Platnick, A. S. Ackerman, L. Di Girolamo, A. Marshak, and K. Meyer, 2016: A framework based on 2-D Taylor expansion for quantifying the impacts of subpixel reflectance variance and covariance on cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals based on the bispectral method, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, doi:10.1002/ 2016JD024837.

Zhao, G., L. Di Girolamo, D.J. Diner, C.J. Bruegge, K. Mueller, and D.L. Wu, 2016: Regional changes in Earth’s color and texture as observed from space over a 15-year period. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.,54(7), 4240-4249, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2016.2538723.

Liang, L. L. Di Girolamo, and W. Sun, 2015: Bias in MODIS cloud drop effective radius for oceanic water clouds as deduced from optical thickness variability across scattering angle. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, doi:10.1002/2015JD023256.

Cho, H.-M., Z. Zhang, K. Meyer, M. Lebsock, S. Platnick, A.S. Ackerman, L. Di Girolamo, L.C. Labonnote, C. Cornet, J. Riedi, and R.E. Holz, 2015: Frequency and causes of failed MODIS cloud property retrievals for liquid phase clouds over global oceans. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, doi:10.1002/2015JD023161.

Astin, I., and L. Di Girolamo, 2014: The horizontal scale-dependence of the cloud overlap parameter alpha.  Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9917-9922.

Rauber, R.M., G. Zhao, L. Di Girolamo, and M. Colon-Robles, 2013: Aerosol size distribution and optical property variability near Caribbean trade cumulus clouds – effects of humidity and cloud processing as determined from aircraft measurements. J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 3063-3083.

Davison, J.L., R.M. Rauber, L. Di Girolamo, and M.A. LeMone, 2013: A revised conceptual model of the tropical marine boundary layer. Part III: Bragg scattering layer statistical properties. J. Atmos. Sci. 70, 3047-3062.

Davison, J.L., R.M. Rauber, and L. Di Girolamo, 2013: A revised conceptual model of the tropical marine boundary layer. Part II: detecting relative humidity layers using Bragg scattering from S-band radar. J. Atmos. Sci. 70, 3025-3046.

Davison, J.L., R.M. Rauber, L. Di Girolamo, and M.A. LeMone, 2013: A revised conceptual model of the tropical marine boundary layer. Part I: statistical characterization of the variability inherent in the wintertime trade wind regime over the Western North Atlantic. J. Atmos. Sci. 70, 3005-3024.

Stubenrauch, C.J.,  W.B. Rossow, S. Kinne, S. Ackerman, G. Cesana, H. Chepfer, L. Di Girolamo, B. Getzewich, A. Guignard, A. Heidinger, B. Maddux, P. Menzel, P. Minnis, C. Pearl, S. Platnick, C. Poulsen,  J. Riedi, S. Sun-Mack, A. Walther, D. Winker, S. Zeng, and G. Zhao, 2013: Assessment of global cloud datasets from satellites: Project and Database initiated by the GEWEX Radiation Panel. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 94, 1031 – 1049.

Reid, J.S., E.J. Hyer, R. Johnson, B.N. Holben, J. Zhang, J.R. Campbell, S.A. Christopher, L. Di Girolamo, L. Giglio, R.E. Holz, C. Kearney, J. Miettinen, E.A. Reid, F.J. Turk, J. Wang, P. Xian, R.J. Yokelson, G. Zhao, R. Balasubramanian, B.N. Chew, S. Janai, N. Lagrosas, P. Lestari, N.-H.Lin, M. Mahmud, B. Norris, A.X. Nguyen, N.T.K.Oahn, M. Oo, S. Salinas, and S.C. Liew, 2013: Observing and understanding the Southeast Asian aerosol system by remote sensing: An initial review and analysis for the Seven Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) program. Atmos. Res., 122, 403-468

Jones, A.L., L. Di Girolamo, and G. Zhao, 2012: Reducing the resolution bias in cloud fraction from satellite derived clear-conservative cloud masks. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D12201, doi:10.1029/2011JD017195.

Dey, S. and L. Di Girolamo, 2011: A decade of change in aerosol properties over the Indian Subcontinent. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L14811, doi:10.1029/2011GL048153.

Minor, H.A., R.M. Rauber, S. Goke, and L. Di Girolamo, 2011: Trade wind cloud evolution observed by polarization radar: relationship to giant condensation nuclei concentrations and cloud organization. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 1075-1096.

Dey, S., L. Di Girolamo, G. Zhao, A.L. Jones, and G.M. McFarquhar, 2011: Satellite-observed relationships between aerosol and trade-wind cumulus cloud properties over the Indian Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L01804, doi:10.1029/2010GL045588.

Di Girolamo, L., L. Liang, and S. Platnick, 2010: A global view of one-dimensional solar radiative transfer through oceanic water clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L18809, doi:10.1029/2010GL044094.

Dey, S., and L. Di Girolamo, 2010: A climatology of aerosol optical and microphysical properties over the Indian Subcontinent from nine years (2000-2008) of Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) data. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D15204,doi:10.1029/2009JD013395.

Tackett, J.L., and L. Di Girolamo, 2009: Enhanced aerosol backscatter adjacent to tropical trade wind clouds revealed by satellite-based lidar. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L14804, doi:10.1029/2009GL039264.

Zhao, G., L. Di Girolamo, S. Dey, A.L. Jones, and M. Bull, 2009: Examination of direct cumulus contamination on MISR-retrieved aerosol optical depth and angstrom coefficient over ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L13811, doi:10.1029/2009GL038549.

Snodgrass, E.R., L. Di Girolamo, and R.M. Rauber, 2009: Precipitation characteristics of trade winds clouds during RICO derived from radar, satellite, and aircraft measurements. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol.,48, 464-483.

Dey, S., L. Di Girolamo, and G. Zhao, 2008: Scale effect on statistics of the macrophysical properties of trade wind cumuli over the tropical western Atlantic during RICO. J. Geophys. Res.,113, D24214, doi:10.1029/2008JD010295.

Yang, Y., and L. Di Girolamo, 2008: Impacts of 3-D radiative transfer effects on satellite cloud detection and their consequences on cloud fraction and aerosol optical depth retrievals. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D04213, doi:10.1029/2007JD009095. (Ogura Award)

Rauber, R.M., B. Stevens, H.T. Ochs, C. Knight, B.A. Albrecht, A.M. Blyth, C.W. Fairall, J.B. Jensen, S. G. Lasher-Trapp,  O. L. Mayol-Bracero,  G. Vali,  J. R. Anderson,  B. A. Baker,  A. R. Bandy,  E. Burnet,  J.-L. Brenguier,  W. A. Brewer,  P. R. A. Brown,  P. Chuang,  W. R. Cotton,  L. Di Girolamo,  B. Geerts,  H. Gerber,  S. Göke,  L. Gomes,  B. G. Heikes,  J. G. Hudson,  P. Kollias,  R. P. Lawson,  S. K. Krueger,  D. H. Lenschow,  L. Nuijens,  D. W. O’Sullivan,  R. A. Rilling,  D. C. Rogers,  A. P. Siebesma,  E. Snodgrass,  J. L. Stith,  D. C. Thornton,  S. Tucker,  C. H. Twohy, and P. Zuidema, 2007: Rain In shallow Cumulus over the Ocean – The RICO campaign. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 1912–1937.

Zhao, G., and L. Di Girolamo, 2007: Statistics on the macrophysical properties of trade wind cumuli over the tropical western Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10204, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007371. (Ogura Award)

Genkova, I., G. Seiz, G. Zhao, P. Zuidema, and L. Di Girolamo, 2007: Trade wind cumulus cloud top height comparisons from ASTER, MISR, and MODIS. Remote Sens. Environ.,107, 211-222.

Astin, I., and L. Di Girolamo, 2006: The relationship between aand the cross-correlation of cloud fraction. Quart. J. Roy. Metero. Soc., 132, 2475-2478.

Zhao, G., and L. Di Girolamo, 2006: Cloud fraction errors for trade wind cumuli from EOS-Terra instruments. Geophys. Res. Lett.,33, L20802, doi:10.1029/2006GL027088

Di Girolamo, L., T. Bond, D. Bramer, D.J. Diner, F. Fettinger, R.A. Khan, J. Martonchick, M.V. Ramama, V. Ramanathan, and P. Rasch, 2004: Analysis of Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aerosol optical depths over greater India during winter 2001-2004. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L23115, doi:10.1029/2004GL021273.

McFarquhar, G.M., S. Platnick, L. Di Girolamo, H. Wang, G. Wind, and G. Zhao, 2004: Remotely sensed observations of aerosol indirect and semi-direct effects over the Indian ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L21105, doi:10.1029/2004GL020412.

Astin, I., and L. Di Girolamo, 2003: Minimizing systematic error in cloud fraction estimates from cloud radars. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 20, 707-716.

Astin, I., L. Di Girolamo, and H.M. Van de Poll, 2001: Baysian confidence intervals for true fractional coverage from finite transect measurements: implications for cloud studies from space. J. Geophys. Res.106, 17303–17310.

Astin, I., and L. Di Girolamo, 1999: A general formalism for the distribution of the total length of a geophysical parameter along a finite transect. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.,37, 508–512.

Di Girolamo, L., and R. Davies, 1997: Cloud fraction errors caused by finite resolution measurements. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 1739–1756.